Chess is a boardgame where the motto of the player is to capture the opponent’s King and say checkmate. The game is played by a minimum of two players over a squareboard containing 64 squares in alternate colors organized in the form of 8 rows and 8 columns. One player is provided with white pieces and the other player is provided with black pieces. Each player is provided with 16 pieces that include One King, One Queen, two bishops, two knights, two rooks and eight pawns.
The game between the two players on the chess board, akin to a war between two kings in a battle field, is classified into four types depending upon the movement of the pieces in the opening stages of the game. While there is no change in the basic chess principles underlying the different types of opening, the arrangement of the pieces determines the type of the game.
The game of chess can be typically classified into four types viz.
- Open game
- Semi-open game
- Closed game
- Semi closed game.
Open games: – Open games are chess openings where the first move by White is to move the pawn before the King two squares forward – that is from e2 to e4. In response, the black also replies with a similar move, moving its pawn before the King at e7 to e5.
The idea behind the White’s move is to have immediate control over the central region of the board – namely the golden squares of e4, e5, d4 and d5. Not only will the move provides control over the center, it also opens up the Queen and the Bishop next to the King for further development. In response to this move by White, if black replicates the similar move and tries to have a share of the center, then it results in an Open game. Ruy Lopez opening is a typical example of an open game.
Semi-Open games:-A semi-open game is a chess opening in which White plays 1.e4 and Black breaks symmetry immediately by replying with a move other than 1…e5. The Semi-Open Games are the complement of the Open Games which begin 1.e4 e5.
Most common among the semi-open games is the Sicilian defense in which the black responds with c5 and the French defense where the black responds with e6 instead of e5. The characteristic feature of semi-open games is that these openings lead to unbalanced positions which offer exciting play with both sides having chances to win.
Closed games:- The closed game is the opposite of the Open game. In contrast to the king pawn movement in the Open game, the quen pawn is moved two squares to d4 and black responds with similar queen pawn movement to d5.
The major difference between the open game and the closed game is that in case of open game, the king pawn at e4 for white and king pawn for black at e5 are not defended, the queen pawn moved by White to d4 is defended by the Queen and the same is the case for black pawn at d5 as well.
Semi-closed game:- Having seen the three different types of games described above, it is natural that you guessed what does the Semi-closed game is all about. Yes. In response to White’s queen pawn movement to d4, black defers from moving the queen pawn and moves other piece, preferably the Knight at king side to f6.
Each of the different openings unfold different challenges to the players and effective implementation of tactics and strategies are essential to say checkmate to the opponent.